In search of the lost symphony
Sir Adrian Boult's explorations of less familiar music is obscured by his reputation as the definitive interpreter of mainstream English masterworks. Among these explorations was his 1934 concert performance of Alban Berg's Wozzeck, a performance that predated the first British staged performance by eighteen years. Another tantalising glimpse of this precociousness is given in Peter Lavezzoli's book The Dawn of Indian Music in the West: this tells how "[John] Mayer composed his Jaya Javanti symphony for the London Philharmonic, conducted by Sir Adrian Boult (unfortunately not recorded)". Tantalising, because researching the performance of this symphony, including consulting Michael Kennedy's definitive biography of the conductor and Sir Adrian's own memoir, drew a blank. However biographical information on the Anglo-Indian composer, trans-cultural jazzer and violinist John Mayer who played in the London Philharmonic Orchestra in the 1950s, is on the record*. There are also examples of his music; including this previously unavailable recording of his remarkable Second Violin Concerto played by Erich Gruenberg:
John Jiddhu Mayer - seen in photos above - was born in Calcutta to an Anglo-Indian father and a Tamil mother in 1929. He was precociously talented and, despite his parent's poverty, studied music from an early age. From seven he studied at the Calcutta School of Music and went on to study with the French violinist and conductor Phillipe Sandré in Calcutta and the founder of the Bombay Symphony, Melhi Mehta, father of Zubin. During this period John Mayer's ambitions as a transcultural composer started to emerge and he also studied Indian classical music with Sanatan Mukherjee, who wrote the influential treatise Theory of harmonization of Indian melody. Mayer's primary interest were the Indian and Western classical traditions, but he also tasted jazz by sitting in with bands.
Having been awarded a scholarship to the Royal Academy, John Mayer arrived in London in August 1952. His scholarship was for the violin, but he also studied composition with the Hungarian exile Mátyás Seiber whose influences included Schoenberg, Bartók and jazz. Seiber was an advocate of twelve tone composition, and he encouraged Mayer to explore serial composition in both Indian and Western classical contexts. Mayer's money ran out after only a year in London; fortunately his talents as a violinist earned him a place in the London Philharmonic Orchestra, which allowed him to remain financially afloat while continuing to study composition. Mayer played with the London Philharmonic for eight years, and is reported to have rather anomalously described himself as “the first black face in a symphony orchestra”. In the photo below John Mayer is with a young Bernard Haitink.
Sir Adrian Boult was chief conductor of the London Philharmonic during this period, after being forcibly retired from the BBC Symphony Orchestra in 1950. He was sympathetic to the composing ambitions of his violinist and programmed several of Mayer's works. However tensions arose with the London Philharmonic's management due to Mayer's parallel career trajectories of violinist and composer. These tensions were exacerbated by his increasing recognition as a composer, notably a commission from Sir Charles Groves for a Dance Suite for sitar, flute, tabla, tampura and orchestra to be premiered by the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic in 1958. This precipitated Mayer's departure from the London Philharmonic; so from 1958 to 1965 he was a member of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra where, somewhat surprisingly, he had a productive relationship with the despotic Thomas Beecham.
By 1965 Mayer's income from composing allowed him to leave the Royal Philharmonic. His decision to depend solely on his composing income was influenced by unexpected success in the jazz world. Mayer had won a reputation in avant-garde London circles for his eclectic composing style, and in 1964 independent producer Dennis Preston needed a jazz piece to complete an album he was producing for EMI. Preston asked him if he had anything suitable; Mayer needed the work and replied that he had, although this was a bluff. The producer then said he wanted to record the piece next day, and Mayer worked all night to write it. Mayer attended the successful session, was paid a £20 fee, and then forgot about the commission.
But six months later Dennis Preston told him that he had played the piece to Atlantic Records co-founder and president Ahmet Ertegun in New York. Ertegun, who shaped the careers of John Coltrane, Ray Charles, the Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin and others, had proposed that Mayer compose music for a ground-breaking - this was 1964 - fusion album combining Indian music and jazz. The proposal was for an Indian quintet of sitar, tabla, tambura, flute, with Mayer on violin and harpsichord, to be combined a jazz quintet led by Jamaican-born alto-player and early world music advocate Joe Harriott. Mayer wrote the music in a month, and it was recorded by the ensemble envisaged by Ahmet Ertegun, now known as the Joe Harriott and John Mayer Double Quintet, in two days.
Indo-Jazz Fusions, was released in 1966 and became an unexpected best-seller and developed a cult following in avant-garde circles. This led to a performing career for Mayer with the ensemble which was now known as Indo-Jazz Fusions. The line-up included bassist Rick Laird who went on to play in John McLaughlin's Mahavishnu Orchestra. A second album followed and Indo-Jazz Fusions played together until Joe Harriott’s death in 1973. Mayer's Western classical training left him uncomfortable with the pure improvisation native both to jazz and Indian music, and his carefully scored charts kept the music within the confines of his raga-based themes. CD transfers with more than acceptable sound of both Indo-Jazz Suite and Indo-Jazz Fusions II can still be found.
John Mayer's remarkable career trajectory from a Calcutta slum, via the Royal Academy and the London Philharmonic, to avant-garde jazz then took another remarkable turn when he became a prominent figure in progressive rock circles. He mentored Keith Emerson during work on the The Nice’s third album, and is credited with playing a role in the creation of some of their repertory, notably Diary of an Empty Day. He later co-orchestrated and conducted his almer mater the London Philharmonic on the 1977 recording of Keith Emerson’s Piano Concerto no. 1 for the album Emerson, Lake & Palmer’s Works Volume 1 album; this was the biggest selling album on which Mayer appeared. First Hand Records, of which Mayer's son Jonathan is a co-proprietor, has remastered and released John Mayer's suite Dhammapada - the sacred scriptures of Theravada Buddhism - played by London Music Fusions and recorded in 1976; as an introduction to John Mayers classical work this disc is highly recommended.
Following Joe Harriott’s death Mayer devoted much of his time to composition and academic work, and was appointed professorships and composer-in-residence at the Birmingham Conservatory where he introduced the BMus Indian music course in 1997. Among the gems in a classical idiom awaiting rediscovery are two Violin Concertos - one including sitar tabla & tanpura, Dances of India for orchestra, Sangitara for String Orchestra & Tanpura, and Ragamala for clarinet & orchestra.
John Mayer revived Indo-Jazz Fusions in 1995 with his son Jonathan playing sitar, and recorded with them for the Nimbus label. In a fascinating example of taking coals to Newcastle, the reformed Indo-Jazz Fusions toured India in 1996, Bangladesh in 1997 and Sri Lanka in 1999. In addition to his jazz work Mayer continued composing in his unique hybrid Indian-Jazz fusion style. In March of 2004 John Mayer was hit by a car and fatally injured while crossing the road in North London. He was 74.
Although John Mayer's iconoclastic career is documented, the fate, or even existence, of his 'Jaya Javanti symphony' remained a mystery up to this point. But I refuse to let these overgrown paths simply fade away. So my researches finally took me to Johnathan Mayer. To my delight he confirmed that 'Jaya Javanti', which was an early composition of his father, does exist, and was performed by both the London Philharmonic and Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestras. Peter Lavezzoli's description of it as a symphony is misleading, as is his transliteration of the title: the work is more a variations for orchestra on the Hindustani raga Jayajavanti (commonly called Jaijaiwanti). There are versions for chamber and full orchestra, and the score is in the British Museum. Moreover there are two non-commercial recording of Jayajavanti among John Mayer's effects.
This recording is one of the items to be included in an online archive being created as part of a National Lottery funded project celebrating the life and legacy of John Mayer. The community project is based in Hillingdon, West London run in conjunction with the Pandit Ram Sahai Sangit Vidyalaya performing arts charitable trust and will feature a programme of events and learning activities led by Jonathan Mayer showcasing the work of his father. Jonathan has very generously given me permission to use one of the recordings of Jayajavanti - the version for full orchestra - in this article. The provenance of orchestra and conductor is unconfirmed, but it is thought to be the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra, possibly conducted by Sir Charles Groves.
So the mystery of the lost symphony from the 1950s is solved. More than half-a-century later the ethnic barriers still existing within classical music are coming under close scrutiny. Let us hope that this retelling of John Mayer's remarkable story belatedly brings him some of the recognition this ground-breaking musician so richly deserves.
* The usually unerring Peter Lavezzoli wrongly states that John Mayer played with the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra from 1958 to 1965. This is wrong: as above he played with the London-based Royal Philharmonic during this period .
My grateful thanks go to Jonathan Mayer who made this appreciation of his father possible. Copyrighted material is included for critical analysis, and will be removed at the request of copyright owner(s). My social media accounts are deleted. But new Overgrown Path posts are available via RSS/email by entering your email address in the right-hand sidebar.