'Ideology is the key which unlocks all art, so, while Chantal may listen to the horns give voice to a hopeless yearning for the lost citadels of Europe, I hear something different, a lament for the way in which human beings have been sacrificed for gold. Alberic cheats the Rhinemaidens. He is robbed by Wotan who in turn cheats the giants. Fasolt kills Fafner. They all want that ring of power which is profit, this golden ring which turns the wheels of the dynamo and sends the dwarfish proletariat underground to work for their subsistence… There is a price for everything. That is Wagner’s message. And the gods are doomed. The fortifications of Valhalla are no stronger than those of Sidi Bel Abbès. That is why Wagner is great. He has got the enemy’s number.'An eloquent if unremarkable exposition until you reach the penultimate line. Sidi Bel Abbès is an Algerian city famous as the burial place of the eponymous Muslim marabout (holy man), and as the base for the French Foreign Legion in the bloody Algerian war of independence. The passage describes a fictitious Ring cycle in Algiers opera house in 1959 and comes from Robert Irwin's novel The Mysteries of Algiers. Irwin himself became a Sufi adept, and deserves a place in literary history if only for the opening line of his autobiographical Memoirs of a Dervish - “It was in my first year at Oxford that I decided I wanted to become a Muslim saint”. That memoir is also noteworthy for drawing attention to the links between Wagner and the transitional state between sleep and wakefulness known as hypnagogia, a link which prompted me to pose the question Was Wagner a Sufi?
The Algerian war of independence was a tripartite battle between between the separatist Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), the French military and colonial paramilitaries during which hundreds of thousands died (exact numbers are disputed), including many innocent civilians. It prompted an exodus of around two million white French settlers in one of the largest displacements of humanity in the post-Second World War period, and its religious sub-agenda is evidenced by the Ketchaoua Mosque in Algiers which was built in 1612, was converted by the French in 1845 to the Cathedral of St Philippe, and became a mosque again in 1962 when the FLN signed a peace treaty with France.
2012 year was the fiftieth anniversary of the end of the Algerian war of independence. But outside France there has been little interest in the anniversary, despite the link between the failed colonial ambitions of Western European countries in North Africa and the topical Arab Spring. In France things are rather different, and my header image shows the newly released 4 CD compilation Algerie: Musiques rebelles 1930-1962 (Algeria : Rebel Music). This ranges across Arab-Andalusian, raï, Kabyle and chaabi music, and its co-production with activist movement Sortir du Colonialism (Retreat of Colonialism) bears testimony to Robert Irwin's message that there is a price for everything. Also noteworthy among French releases is the 2 CD compilation Il était une fois la musique Kabyle seen below. This gives a valuable overview of popular Algerian Berber music and includes a track by Cherifa Kersit who featured in my post Dvorak will never sound the same.
Last year I wrote about the forgotten war of independence in Music and politics in the garden of Allah, and in October this year French President François Hollande raised the profile of the conflict by ending official denials that the Parisian police had massacred Algerian pro-independence protesters in 1961, and went on to pay homage to the victims. The exact number of Algerians who died in the protest is unknown; official figures put it at just three, unofficial estimates are as high as two hundred. Hollande, who has also apologized for the “vel d’Hiv” round-up of Jews in Paris in 1942, has stated that “There cannot be, and there will not be lost memory under the Republic”. The notion that society cannot tolerate lost memory of uncomfortable past events is gathering momentum, and has resulted in moving visual art commissions such as the Abolition of Slavery Memorial in Nantes, France and the Walter Benjamin memorial in Portbou, Spain. But it is a movement that classical music remains obstinately detached from, preferring instead to stay within its own comfort zone.
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